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Four Factors Affecting the Reliability of Batteries

Issuing time:2019-06-14 16:14

1. Battery temperature affects battery reliability

Temperature has a great influence on the natural aging process of batteries. Detailed experimental data show that battery life decreases by 10% for every 5 degrees Celsius rise, so UPS should be designed to keep the battery as warm as possible. All on-line and back-up/on-line hybrid UPS generate more heat than backup or on-line interactive UPS (so fans are installed in the former), which is also an important reason why backup or on-line interactive UPS battery replacement cycle is relatively long.

2. Design of Battery Charger Affects Battery Reliability

UPS is a very important part of battery charger. The charging condition of battery has a great influence on battery life. If the battery is in constant voltage or "floating" charging state, UPS battery life can be maximized. In fact, the battery life in charge state is much longer than that in storage state. Because battery charging can delay the natural aging process of batteries, UPS should keep the batteries charged in both running and shutdown states.

3. Battery Voltage Affects Battery Reliability

The battery is a single "primary battery", each of which has a voltage of about 2 volts. When the primary batteries are connected in series, a high voltage battery is formed. A 12 volt battery consists of 6 primary batteries, a 24 volt battery consists of 12 primary batteries and so on. When UPS batteries are charged, each primary battery in series is charged. Slightly different performance of primary batteries will lead to higher charging voltage of some primary batteries than other primary batteries, and this part of the batteries will aging ahead of time. As long as the performance of a primary battery in series decreases, the performance of the whole battery will also decline. Experiments show that the battery life is related to the number of primary batteries in series. The higher the battery voltage, the faster the aging.

When the capacity of UPS is constant, the battery voltage should be kept as low as possible in design, so that the life of UPS battery will be longer. When the battery voltage is constant, the number of batteries connected in series with less voltage should be selected, and the number of batteries connected in series with more voltage and lower voltage should not be selected. Some UPS manufacturers have higher battery voltage, because when the capacity is constant, the higher the voltage is, the smaller the current is. Thinner conductors and lower power semiconductors can be selected to reduce the cost of UPS. The battery voltage of UPS with capacity of about 1KVA is generally 24-96V.

4. Ripple Current of Battery Affects Battery Reliability

Ideally, in order to prolong the life of UPS batteries, the batteries should always be kept in the state of "floating" charging or constant voltage charging. In this state of electricity, a fully charged battery absorbs very small charger currents, which are called "floating" or "self-discharge" currents. Despite battery manufacturers'recommendation, some UPS designs (many on-line) allow batteries to withstand additional small currents, called ripple currents. Ripple current is generated when batteries are continuously supplied to the inverters, because according to the principle of energy conservation, the inverters must have input DC current to produce AC output. In this way, the battery forms a small charge-discharge cycle, and the charge-discharge current frequency is twice the output frequency of UPS (50 or 60 Hz).

There will be no ripple current in common backup UPS, online interactive UPS or backup/ferromagnetic UPS. The ripple current in other UPS designs will vary in size, depending on the specific design method. Just check the structure of UPS to see if the UPS can generate ripple current.

If the on-line UPS battery is between the charger and the inverter, then the battery will have ripple current, which is a common "double conversion" UPS.

If the battery is separated from the inverter by a cut-off diode, relay, converter or rectifier, the battery will not have ripple current. Of course, this design of UPS is not always "online", so this UPS is called "hybrid backup / online" UPS.

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